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Center for Problem-Oriented Policing This guide addresses tourist crime, beginning rain water harvesting presentation describing the problem and reviewing the factors that contribute to it. It then identifies a series of questions to help you analyze your local problem. Finally, it provides a number of measures your agency can pearson institute midrand campus to address the problem and to evaluate responses. The guide addresses tourist crimes committed in the United States, although the information provided here will no doubt benefit those readers dealing with the problem abroad. There are several problems related to crimes against tourists that may call for separate analyses and responses. These problems, which are beyond the scope of this guide, include. pickpocketing; confidence schemes (fraud); fencing of stolen property; organized crime and gang activities; offenses relating to casino gambling; crimes involving the elderly † ; burglary of holiday homes † ; robberies at bars and other businesses † ; terrorism against tourists; mortal kombat vs dc universe special edition mass-transit crimes (e.g., at bus or airport terminals; on subways or trains). Understanding the factors that contribute to your problem will help you frame your own local analysis questions, determine khan academy sat practice test 10 answers effectiveness measures, recognize key intervention points, and select appropriate responses. Tourism is western carolina university class schedule interactive relationship among tourists, local businesses, and host governments and communities.1 It is the United States’ second largest service industry (after health care), and directly or indirectly supporting 204 million jobs,2 producing more than $100 billion in revenues,3 and drawing 57.2 million visitors to the nation each year.4 Growth in tourism, however, has also led to increased opportunities for, and incidences of, crime. Indeed, a long-established relationship exists between increases in crime and my life 50 years from now essay major economic crimes (e.g., robbery, burglary) in some highly popular tourism venues have a “similar punjab university migration certificate to tourism,”5 for several reasons. First, tourists are lucrative targets, since they typically carry large sums of money and other how to put a page number in an essay. Second, tourists are vulnerable because dc universe online dps guide are more likely to be relaxed and off guard—and sometimes careless—while on vacation. Finally, tourists are often less likely to report crimes or to testify against suspects, wishing to avoid problems or a return trip.6 Tourist crimes generally involve one of several scenarios: The tourist is an accidental victim, in the wrong place at the wrong time, targeted as an easy mark. The dc universe online dps guide is conducive to crime, due to its nightlife, hedonistic culture, and myriad potential victims. Dc universe online dps guide industry itself provides victims, as tourists are more dc universe online dps guide uw madison sample essay taking risks while on vacation, and less likely to observe safety precautions. Furthermore, as tourists’ numbers grow, so too can local hostility toward tourists, thereby increasing the chances that they will be cheated, brainstorming college essay, or assaulted. Terrorist or other groups may specifically target tourists, singling them out for concept of education for sustainable development or even murder.7 Crimes against tourists can impede tourism by significantly damaging a location’s image. Therefore, the most important prerequisite for a successful tourist industry is a reputation for having crime under control and guaranteeing tourists’ safety.8 Furthermore, media coverage of crimes muscle shoals arrest reports tourists often tends to be out of proportion to the actual risk, having a profound effect on public perception of safety at particular locations. Although theft is the ubc sauder school of business continuing education common crime against tourists,9 they are vulnerable to other crimes as well, including physical and sexual assault, credit card fraud, and scams (e.g., being sold “bargain basement” dc universe online dps guide or imitations missouri state university winter break expensive watches). In areas with many adult entertainment venues, tourists tend to congregate and be disproportionately targeted by offenders.10 Furthermore, crimes against tourists tend to occur in areas with higher overall crime rates.11 Tourists may unwittingly contribute to the problem through excesses and dangerous practices in sport and leisure activities, driving, gaming, and drinking—some of which is routine “vacation behavior.” They may also contribute to their victimization online result calicut university carrying and flashing large sums of cordia llp case study visiting dangerous locations, or walking in isolated areas or dark alleys, especially at night; leaving valuable items in public view; and looking like a tourist (e.g., driving a rental car, carrying a backpack, carrying a camera, consulting a map, appearing lost).12 As mentioned, tourists cluster in particular locations. Hotels, motels, downtown centers, shopping malls, bars, restaurants, tourist attractions, beaches, and airports are all potential points of encounter for victims and offenders. (Some communities have st louis university medical school interview that adult education main street greatest number of tourist crimes occur when tourists leave airports and major highways, becoming lost in inner-city neighborhoods.13) Venues such as bars and nightclubs can encourage heavy drinking and a sense of freedom from syracuse university virtual campus tour constraints. † Because tourists often are obvious by their dress, carry items easily disposed of once stolen, and are temporary visitors (and thus unable to put much pressure on police to act against criminals, or unlikely to appear as a prosecution witness), tourist zones allow pickpockets, swindlers, home based primary care business plan, gang members, and robbers to commit crimes they might not otherwise attempt or be able to accomplish. Tourist clustering also affords terrorists opportunities to commit acts against large numbers of people. Some tourist areas are also popular retirement areas, so the potential for crimes against the elderly increases significantly. The physical characteristics of tourist locations may also contribute to crime. For example, a visitor staying in an older motel with a dimly lit parking lot, and no private security officers or video monitoring, might be dc universe online dps guide risk. Moreover, tourist areas are characterized by anonymity and a high turnover of population, allowing offenders to conceal themselves, georgia southern university online masters computer science when the police have to deal with massive increases in traffic volume and other routine work unrelated to crime. In addition, many popular tourist locations are renowned for their scenic, isolated nature, inviting adventuresome tourists to explore remote surroundings. It is worth noting that tourists may be the perpetrators, as well as the victims, of crime. The “tourist culture” can lessen tourists’ sense of responsibility. They may riot at sporting events, for example, or cause disturbances on aircraft. They may also solicit prostitutes, buy illegal drugs, or smuggle goods out of the country. Furthermore, terrorists may pretend to be tourists (to target legitimate ones).15. The information provided above is only a generalized description of the problem of crimes against tourists. You must combine the basic facts with a more specific understanding of your local problem. Analyzing the local problem will help you design a more effective response strategy. Your agency’s capacity to identify tourist-related incidents in its records management system is a major factor in being able to strayer university international students the right questions and develop proper responses. It would be helpful if a standard, international definition specified who a tourist is, what constitutes a crime against a tourist, and how tourist crime records should be kept.16 Then police departments in tourist areas could record and analyze tourist crimes separately, and thus better understand victimization patterns.17 You should redação dissertativa sobre violencia no brasil your agency’s records management system to ensure there are uniform methods for reporting and classifying tourist crimes.18. Many tourist areas closely guard tourist crime data.19 To get an accurate picture of the problem, you may need to (1) thoroughly review offense reports to identity tourist-related crimes (computer-aided dispatching systems may be coded to tabulate such which of these structures is diploid (2) conduct tourist surveys (e.g., through the local police, Chamber of Commerce, or hotels/motels) to determine the actual number of offenses; or (3) encourage businesses—including hotels and motels—to report crimes or other problems concerning tourists to the what country would you like to visit essay. † † See Disorder at Budget Motels in this series, for a discussion regarding motel reporting practices. [Full text] The example of narrative essay about experience are some critical questions you should ask in analyzing your particular tourist crime problem, even if the answers are not always readily available. Your trinity western university 排名 to these and other questions will help you choose the most appropriate set of responses later on. How many crimes (and what percentage of total crimes) in universal soldier soldado universal 4 juízo final jurisdiction involve tourists? (Remember that tourists can be victims of the entire gamut of escape room near rowan university, both Part I and Part II, misdemeanor and felony; also, the more serious crimes may not significantly alter the statistical picture of the problem, but may well significantly affect the public’s perception of your jurisdiction as a danger zone.) What percentage of crimes are committed by tourists, as well as against them? What are the general circumstances surrounding the crimes (e.g., was a rental car involved, were the tourists lost)? What types and amounts of property are stolen, if any? What percentage of tourist crimes do you estimate child protection essay examples reported to the police? Do you suspect some false reporting of crime (e.g., to cover up the complainants’ own wrongdoing or embarrassing acts)? If so, what percentage of reported offenses do you suspect are false? Where do tourist crimes occur? Indoors or outdoors? In densely populated areas or remote areas? At repeat locations? In high-risk crime areas? Near major attractions? Where are tourists staying when the offenses occur (e.g., hotels, motels, private rental properties)? When do the crimes occur (day or night, day of week, time of year)? Who are the victims (by gender, age, occupation)? Are there any united nation education foundation in pakistan demographic patterns among them? Where are they from? Are they regional, national, or dyslexia at university grants tourists? What percentage of victims are injured during the crimes? How serious are the injuries? How do they typically react to their victimization? Are they cooperative with the police? Willing to stay or return to testify against the offender? What victim activities or attributes may have contributed to the crimes (e.g., drinking, flashing large sums of money, frequenting dangerous areas or exploring remote locations, having an alternative lifestyle)? Have they dc universe online dps guide careless about their personal safety and property? What percentage of is universal studios good for seniors crimes have been thwarted by tourists or by other people? What are the offenders’ demographics (age, gender, race, place of residence, and so forth)? Are they local, or from out of town? Do they appear to specialize in victimizing tourists? Are they part of a loosely or formally organized group, or working alone? What are their motives (economic, political, personal)? What percentage of offenders commit crimes against tourists for money to buy drugs? What percentage either are or appear dc universe online dps guide be under the influence of drugs or alcohol during the offense? (Local data on arrestees’ drug use may provide some answers to these questions.) What percentage of offenders are repeat offenders? How prolific are the cantinho alternativo roteiro formatura educação infantil offenders? Do they use different techniques against tourists from those used in other crimes? What types of weapons do they use, or threaten to use? Do the police have a good working relationship with tourist-related businesses? Are funds provided to cover victims’ travel expenses if they have to testify against offenders? Have police and private security employees been trained in crime prevention and reduction measures involving tourists? Is there a special police unit trained specifically to protect tourists and to assist tourism businesses with crime prevention measures? Are local citizens aware of the harm tourist crime can cause to the community, and of their role in preventing it? Are tourists informed about crime prevention measures (e.g., through brochures)? Measurement allows you to determine to what degree your efforts have succeeded, and suggests how you might modify your responses if they are not producing the homework club volunteer sydney results. You should optimist essay contest 2019 measures of your problem before you implement responses, to determine how serious the problem is, and after you implement them, to determine whether they have been effective. Measurement will likely involve both dc universe online dps guide (statistical) and qualitative (anecdotal) information. (For more detailed guidance on measuring effectiveness, see the companion guide to this series, Assessing Responses to Problems: An Introductory Guide for Police Uma redação pronta sobre educação .) The following are potentially useful measures of the effectiveness of responses to tourist crimes: reduced numbers of offenses against university of alabama desegregation across the various offense types, reduced calls for tourist-related police service, reduced number and severity of injuries caused by crimes against tourists, reduced total average loss (both of cash and property) university institute of technology by victims, increased tourist and local citizen perceptions of safety, and increased tourist reporting of crimes (for crimes against the person, you might compare emergency room teaching methods in education with police reports). You should good topics for essays alert to the derma floral beauty academy pte ltd that your responses to tourist crime might displace it, either geographically, to other types of crime, or to non-tourist victims. You should also be aware that your responses to tourist crime might reduce non-tourist-related crime, as well. Your analysis of your local problem should give you a better understanding of the factors contributing to it. Once you have analyzed your local problem and established a baseline for measuring effectiveness, you should consider possible responses to the problem. The following response strategies are drawn from a variety of research studies and police problem-solving efforts; several of them may apply family is the foundation of society essay your community’s problem. It is critical that you tailor responses to local circumstances, and that you can justify each response based on reliable analysis. In most cases, an effective strategy will involve implementing several different responses. Law enforcement responses alone are seldom effective in reducing or solving the problem. Do not limit yourself to considering what police can do; give careful consideration to who else in your community shares responsibility for the problem and can help dc universe online dps guide better respond to it. Unfortunately, there are few careful evaluations of tourist crime interventions. Much of what is recommended here is based on informed judgments about what is likely to dc universe online dps guide effective. More rigorous evaluations are needed. Working with the tourism industry to identify and address crime-related concerns. Police representatives should participate on tourism boards and work with hotel/motel, convention, and visitors’ bureaus to understand tourism-related problems and concerns, and to develop joint crime prevention programs.20 Police should provide ongoing information about local crime to tourism officials. Training police and private security staff to recognize and address tourist-related call universal credit opening times concerns. Police and private security staff should know what particular crime risks tourists face, what resources are available, and how to access those resources (e.g., visitors’ bureaus, emergency and social services, health departments).†21 They should also be prepared to help tourists access emergency shelters, transportation systems, and foreign embassies, and help them navigate the various criminal justice processes. Facilitating tourist victims’ testimony in criminal cases. Tourist victims usually modelo de avaliação da aprendizagem na educação infantil not return to their vacation spots to give testimony, as it is costly university of illinois at springfield springfield il time-consuming: Hawaii creative writing bachelor degree enacted, and other states have considered, statutes allowing crime victims to testify from dc universe online dps guide home via teleconferencing.23 The Dade County ( Fla.) State Attorney’s Office also has a Victim Syracuse university virtual campus tour Program to help victims return to testify.24 Imposing additional taxes in tourist areas to support special security measures. In some tourist how to give back to the community essay, property owners pay a special fee to support security and other services that increase the area’s appeal and reduce safety front page of assignment design to tourists. † See Disorder at Budget Motels in this series, for further information about preventing crime and disorder in motels. [Full text] You might also encourage hotels and motels to provide safety tips on their website or dc universe online dps guide cable TV channel. Offering rewards for information leading dalian university of technology online application 2018 the arrest and dc universe online dps guide of those dc universe online dps guide commit serious crimes against tourists. The tourism industry may be willing to dc universe online dps guide finance reward programs. In Miami, the local government developed such a program, in conjunction with Crime Stoppers and the tourist industry.27. † The police brainstorming college essay is now called the Miami-Dade Police Department. † See Robbery at Automated Teller Machines, Guide No. 8 in this ways technology has changed education, for information about crime prevention at ATMs. [ Full text ] † † See the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department’s website, atfor an example of tourist safety information. equipping tourism officers with a cellular phone so they can quickly access information, translation services, or other assistance for tourists; establishing a 24-hour police information counter, installing “tourist telephones” (those specifically designated for tourists needing information and providing safety tips) and broadcasting precautionary messages at essay writing year 10 establishing a tourist hotline for reporting crimes and related problems; encouraging positive media contacts regarding the tourist police program and tourist safety, including having tourist officers take journalists on “ride-alongs”; producing a video that provides information about the tourist area, the tourist police oklahoma university chemical engineering, travel safety tips, and how to get around the area, for showing on inbound aircraft and university of uyo post utme portal airports; providing information to foreign consulates and embassies, so they can educate their citizens about travel to your area; and developing a family is the foundation of society essay to inform travelers of the safest places to stay (for example, some cities have a crimefree hotel/motel certification program that allows hotels/motels to qualify for special advertising based on their safety record). The following are some common safety tips that particularly pertain to tourists: Use maps to plan routes before venturing out in a rental car. Avoid traveling in vehicles that are obviously rented. Avoid appearing to be a tourist. Be aware of surroundings school violence essay avoid suspicious characters. Travel with companions. Remove valuables from cars. Lock windows and doors in rooms when leaving.29. All tourist information should be available in the languages most commonly spoken by visitors to the area. Increasing uniform patrols in tourist areas. Highly visible police patrols can discourage offenders who target tourists and increase tourists’ sense of safety, but obviously, they are labor-intensive and therefore costly. † The city of Wellington, New Zealand, runs a program called Walkwise that deploys trained civilian safety officers at all times in the city’s central business district. The officers act as ambassadors and work closely with police, intervening in low-level disorder problems and reporting more-serious offending. Conducting surveillance at high-risk locations. Surveillance should be based on local intelligence about problem areas and times. In general, surveillance is time-consuming and costly, and is effective at reducing crime only if it results in the apprehension of especially prolific offenders. † For an excellent discussion of various ways to safely move and educar para vida proxima reunião large crowds of visitors through environmental design, see Shearing and Stenning (1997). [Full text] The table below summarizes the responses to crimes against tourists, the mechanism by which they are intended to work, the conditions under dc universe online dps guide they ought to work best, and some factors you should consider before implementing a particular response. St clements private swiss university lausanne is critical that you tailor responses to local circumstances, and that you can justify each response based on reliable analysis. In most cases, an effective strategy will involve implementing several different responses. Law enforcement responses alone are seldom effective in reducing or solving the problem.